Links to Bird Flu

Singapore Government Crisis News Website – FLU (2008)
“The H5N1 strain of Avian Influenza or Bird Flu continues to be a problem in many parts of the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia has reported the highest number of human deaths due to Bird Flu in the world...”

FLU: Bird Flu FAQ (2006)
“FAQ: Facts about Bird Flu
What is Bird Flu?
How do humans get infected?...”

Ministry of Health: Update on Avian Influenza (2004)
”On 13 January 2004, the World Health Organization reported that an outbreak of avian influenza (bird flu) among chickens in Vietnam might be linked to the deaths of twelve people. Laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of H5N1 avian influenza in these patients.”

AVA Collaboration Programme for Bird Flu Control in Kepri
“As part of the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority’s (AVA’s) multi-layered control strategy against Bird Flu, AVA aims to lower the risk of spread of Bird Flu to Singapore, by collaborating with Kepri in its fight against Bird Flu.”

WHO: Avian Influenza (2008)
“WHO is coordinating the global response to human cases of H5N1 avian influenza and monitoring the corresponding threat of an influenza pandemic.”

CDC: Influenza/ Avian Flu
“Avian influenza virususually refers to influenza A viruses found chiefly in birds, but infections can occur in humans. The risk is generally low to most people, because the viruses do not usually infect humans. However, confirmed cases of human infection have been reported since 1997…”

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Links to Bird Related Diseases

Bird Mites Infestation
“parasitic infestation from bird mites too small to be easily seen without magnification. Symptoms include pinprick bites, often intense itching with or without lesions, small reddened bumps, and a crawling sensation anywhere on the body; with increased activity at night.”

Bird-X: Bird Pest Diseases Human Can Get From Birds
“More than 60 transmissible bird diseases (some of which are fatal) are associated with geese, pigeons, starlings and house sparrows.”

Aviator Bird Control: Bird Health Problems
“Pigeons are a health hazard to the work environment can wreak havoc in the workplace and spread many diseases - such as Lung Disease, Heart Disease, Kidney Disease, (Brain Disease through mosquito), Salmonella, Respiratory problems and Asthma Attacks.”

CDC: Pigeon Canker - Trichomoniasis
“Trichomoniasis in domestic fowl, pigeons, doves, and hawks is characterized, in most cases, by caseous accumulations in the throat and usually by weight loss. It has been termed “canker,” “roup,” and, in hawks, “frounce.””

Bird- X: Histoplasmosis
”Histoplasmosis is an infection that varies in symptoms and seriousness. It usually affects the lungs. When it affects other parts of the body, it is called disseminated histoplasmosis.”

The Association of Avian Veterinarians: Psittacosis
“Although psittacosis infection in humans is normally mild, it is potentially dangerous for persons who are sick, elderly or immunosuppressed (e.g., AIDS patients).”

Avian System: Salmonella
“Salmonella can be passed directly from birds to humans through the exchange of almost any bodily fluid (including oils present on birds' skin and feathers).”

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Links to Pest Bird/ Bat Behavior

BBC Science & Nature Wildfacts: Feral Pigeons
“Pigeons are actually domesticated rock doves that have returned to wild or semi-wild conditions. Some rock doves were domesticated for food, others as homing pigeons, and some as ‘fancy’ pigeons, bred for their plumage.”

Kansas School Naturalist: Feral Pigeons
“Feral pigeon populations have year-long breeding seasons in most localities. Individual pairs maintain nests, lay eggs and rear young for from six to ten months each year, taking time off in or near winter. Because individuals are not of synchrony with each other, some nesting occurs in populations every month of the year, even in localities at high latitudes.”

ADW: Columbia livia Information
“Wild Columba livia are native to Europe, North Africa, and southwestern Asia. Feral pigeons are found worldwide, including throughout all of North America.”

Innolytics, LLC : Facts & Figures – Pigeons
“The rock pigeon makes a flimsy nest, but it often reuses the same location repeatedly, even building a new nest on top of the last one. Because the pigeons do not try to remove the feces of their nestlings, the nest becomes a sturdy, mud-like mound that gets larger over time.”

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Links to Bird Identification

Brahminy kite (haliastur indus)
“Brahminy Kites are more scavengers than hunters. But they also hunt for small prey (fish, crabs, shellfish, frogs, rodents, reptiles, even insects).”


GreyHeron (Ardea cinera)
“The Grey Heron is the largest bird in Singapore, standing at 1m tall with a wingspan of 2m.”

Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea)
“The Purple Heron is the most colourful large heron in Sungei Buloh Nature Park, with a distinctive snake-like neck which is usually held in a prominent kink.”

Great Egret (Egretta alba)
“It has extremely long legs and neck. Its neck is longer than its body, and is held in a distinctive kink.”

Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis)
“Common Kingfishers usually perch on a convenient branch or pole about 1-2m from the water surface.”

Lesser Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna javanica)
“Lesser Whistling Ducks eat aquatic vegetation by dabbling on the water surface in shallow water.”

White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus)
“White-breasted Waterhens are the most common of the Rail family in Singapore, often heard before they are seen.”

Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis)
“Yellow Bitterns that live in Singapore breed year-round.
The males perform a breeding display, advertising from bush tops, hunched with throat puffed out and base of the bill flushed red, accompanied by a soft, monotonous crrew crrew song.”


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